#### Mr. Trivel

##### Adventurer

**Damage Formulas 101**

MV Edition

You probably wondered how to make a skill do more damage against enemies with a state, or heal more if player has a state, or deal exactly half of enemy's HP. And so on.

All of that and more can be done through custom damage formula.

**Basics:**

**Type**- sets what does the formula damage or heal.

None - Nothing, no damage will be dealt.

HP Damage - HP will be damaged

MP Damage - MP will be damaged

HP Recover - HP will be restored

MP Recover - MP will be restored

HP Drain - Deals damage to enemy HP and restores that much HP for attacker

MP Drain - Deals damage to enemy MP and restores that much MP for attacker

**Element**- Sets which element to use. Normal attack - means will use same element as weapon.

**Variance**- How will damage fluctuate. E.g. If skill formula says it deals 100 damage and variance is 20%, the skill will deal between 80 and 120 damage.

**Critical**- Can skill critically hit, dealing increased damage by 300%.

And now, the actual fun part - formulas!

It decides how much damage will opponent take or ally will heal.

Let's dissect one of basic formulas that come with RPG Maker MV - Fire

100 + a.mat * 2 - b.mdf * 2

**What do things like**

*a*and*b*mean?a - attacker

b - defender

*So if Actor Glasses were to cast Fire on a Slime. a would be Glasses and b would be Slime.*

Meaning the takes double of Glasses mat (Magic Attack) parameter and subtracts double of Slime's mdf (Magic Defense) parameter and adds that to the 100 in the beginning ofthe formula.

E.g. Glasses has 100 mat and Slime has 20 mdf. If we were to convert fomula using those numbers, we'd have - 100 + 100*2 - 20*2, after calculation we see with those parameters Fire would deal 260 damage if there were no variance.

But

**only last number in the formula deals damage.**If you had 2 lines of formula. (semicolon ; tells where line ends for the program)

E.g. a.atk; a.atk*2

Only a.atk*2 would be calculated for damage.

**Are there more letters other than a and b for the formulas?**

Yes. There are variables. Which are used like this: v[ID]. ID - index of the variable.

So you could have a skill that gets stronger the higher variable is.

E.g. v[10] * 2 - b.def * 3

**Is there a way to make skill even more complex**, e.g. if some variable is over 100, deal extra damage?

Yes, in that case we can use if else statements.

How if else statement looks:

Code:

```
if (statement)
{
formula1;
}
else
{
formula2;
}
```

**But how to write it to the damage formula?**It only has 1 line!

Just write everything together~

Code:

`if (statement) { formula1; } else { formula2; }`

Code:

`if (v[10] > 100) { a.atk*4 - b.def*2 } else { a.atk*2 - b.def*2 }`

**Which can be shortened to this if you're using only 1 line of formula.**

Code:

```
if (statement)
formula1;
else
formula2;
```

Code:

`if (v[10] > 100) a.atk*4 - b.def*2; else a.atk*2 - b.def*2;`

**And you can shorten it even further using ternary operator**(my favorite one):

statement ? formula1 : formula2;

E.g.:

Code:

`v[10] > 100 ? a.atk*4 - b.def*2 : a.atk*2 - b.def*2;`

**Symbols for statements:**

> - more than

< - less than

>= more than or equal to

<= less than or equal to

=== equal to

&& and

|| or

!== not equal

! not

**Examples:**

v[10] > 100 ? 1000 : 100; (If variable 10 is more than 100, it'll deal 1000 damage, else it'll only deal 100)

v[10] < 100 ? 1000 : 100; (If variable 10 is less than 100, it'll deal 1000 damage, else, it'll only deal 100)

v[10] >== 100 ? 1000 : 100; (If variable is 100 or more, it'll deal 1000 damage, else it'll only deal 100)

v[10] <== 100 ? 1000 : 100; (If variable is 100 or less, it'll deal 1000 damage, else it'll only deal 100)

v[10] === 100 ? 1000: 100; (If variable is equal to 100, it'll deal 1000 damage, else it'll only deal 100)

v[10] > 50 && v[11] >== 25 ? 1000 : 100; (If variable 10 is more than 50 and variable 11 is 25 or more, it'll deal 1000 damage, else it'll only deal 100)

v[10] > 50 || v[11] > 50 ? 1000 : 100; (If variable 10 is more than 50 or variable 11 is more than 50 then it'll deal 1000 damage, it'll only deal 100)

v[10] !== 100 ? 1000 : 100; (If variable 10 is not equal to 100, it'll deal 1000 damage else it'll only deal 100)

**What about parameters to use for a and b?**

Here's a whole list of them:

**Current**: (All flat numbers, e.g.: 900, 999, 11)

level - current level

*(Actor only by default)*

hp - current hp

mp - current mp

tp - current tp

**Params**: (All flat numbers, e.g.: 1337, 7331, 156)

mhp - max hp

mmp - max MP

atk - attack

def - defence

mat - magic attack

mdf - magic defence

agi - agility

luk - luck

**XParams**: (All decimal numbers symbolizing percent, e.g. 1.0, 0.5, 0.75, 2.44 would be 100%, 50%, 75%, 244%)

hit - Hit rate

eva - Evasion rate

cri - Critical rate

cev - Critical evasion rate

mev - Magic evasion rate

mrf - Magic reflection rate

cnt - Counter attack rate

hrg - HP regeneration rate

mrg - MP regeneration rate

trg - TP regeneration rate

**SParams**:(All decimal numbers symbolizing percent, e.g. 1.0, 0.5, 0.75, 2.44 would be 100%, 50%, 75%, 244%)

tgr - Target Rate

grd - Guard effect rate

rec - Recovery effect rate

pha - Pharmacology

mcr - MP Cost rate

tcr - TP Charge rate

pdr - Physical damage rate

mdr - Magical damage rate

fdr - Floor damage rate

exr - Experience rate

**How about changing HP/MP/TP?**

gainHp(value) - restores HP by value

gainMp(value) - restores MP by value

gainTp(value) - restores TP by value

setHp(hp) - sets HP to value

setMp(mp) - sets MP to value

setTp(tp) - sets TP to value

E.g. a.setHp(a.mhp)

E.g. a.setHp(a.hp + 100)

clearTp() - sets TP to 0

**What about advanced stuff where you can influence formulas with states?**

We got all that!

isStateAffected(stateId) - checks if battler has state inflicted to them.

E.g. b.isStateAffected(10) ? 10000 : 1;

isDeathStateAffected() - checks if battler has death state inflicted to them.

E.g. b.isDeathStateAffected() ? 10000 : 1;

resetStateCounts(stateId) - refreshes how long state will last for the battler

if (b.isStateAffected(10)) b.resetStateCounts(10); 100

updateStateTurns() - shortens all states on battler by 1 turn

b.updateStateTurns(); 100

addState(stateId) - adds state to the battler

if (!b.isStateAffected(10)) b.addState(10); 100

isStateAddable(stateId) - checks if state can be added to the battler

c=100; if (b.isStateAddable(10)) b.addState(10); else c=4000; c

removeState(stateId) - removes state from the battler

if (a.isStateAffected(10)) a.removeState(10); 0

**What about buffs? Can we buff and debuff battlers?**

Yes!

addBuff(paramId, turns) - adds a buff for a parameter

a.addBuff(0, 3); b.def*10

addDebuff(paramId, turns) - adds a debuff for a parameter

b.addDebuff(2, 10); 9999

removeBuff(paramId) - removes a buff or debuff from a battler

removeAllBuffs() - removes all buffs and debuffs from a battler

**Parameter IDs**

0 - Max HP

1 - Max MP

2 - Attack

3 - Defence

4 - Magic Attack

5 - Magic Defence

6 - Agility

7 - Luck

**General Battler Stuff**

die() - kills the battler

b.die(); 0

revive() - revives the battler

a.revive(); 1000

paramBase(paramId) - gets base parameter

a.paramBase(3)*10 - b.def*2

paramPlus(paramId) - gets the bonus of parameter

a.paramPlus(3)*2 - b.def*2

paramMax(paramId) - gets max possible value of parameter

b.paramMax(0)

elementRate(elementId) - checks element rate of the battler (rate being decimal numbers representing %)

b.elementRate(10) >== 0.5 ? 10000 : a.mat*4;

isStateResist(stateId) - checks whether the battler resists state

c=0; b.isStateResist(10) ? c+=2000 : b.addState(10); c

isSkillTypeSealed(stypeId) - checks if battler's skill type is sealed

isSkillSealed(skillId) - checks if battler's skill is sealed

isEquipTypeSealed(etypeId) - checks if battler's equip type is sealed

isDualWield() - checks if battler can dual wield

isGuard() - checks if battler is guarding

recoverAll() - removes all states, restores HP and MP to max

hpRate() - checks HP rate of battler

mpRate() - checks MP rate of battler

tpRate() - checks TP rate of battler

b.hpRate() < 0.5 ? b.hp-1 : 100;

isActor() - checks if battler is actor

isEnemy() - checks if battler is enemy

escape() - escapes from battle

b.escape() (makes enemy run away)

consumeItem(item) - eat up an item

a.consumeItem($dataItems[15]); 100

**For actor only:**

currentExp() - current EXP

currentLevelExp() - EXP needed for current level

nextLevelExp() - EXP needed for next level

nextRequiredExp() - EXP left until next level

maxLevel() - max level of actor

isMaxlevel() - is actor max level (true/false)

hasWeapon() - is actor wielding a weapon (true/false)

hasArmor() - is actor wearing any armor (true/false)

clearEquipments() - unequip everything actor is wearing

isClass(gameClass) - checks if actor is of a class (gameClass - $dataClasses[ID])

hasNoWeapons() - checks if actor doesn't have any weapons

levelUp() - levels actor up

levelDown() - level actor down

gainExp(exp) - gives actor exp

learnSkill(skillId) - makes actor learn a skill

forgetSkill(skillId) - makes actor forget a skill

isLearnedSkill(skillId) - checks if actor has a skill learned

actorId() - returns Actor's ID

For enemy only:

enemyId() - returns Enemy's ID

**What about Math? Can we use Math methods inside the formula?**

Yup, you totally can.

Math.random() - returns a random number between 0 and 1 (0 <= n < 1)

Math.min(

*numbers*) - returns a minimum number from provided numbers.

E.g. Math.min(10, 50, 40, 200) - would return 10.

Math.max(

*numbers*) - returns a maximum number from provided numbers.

E.g. Math.max(10, 50, 40, 200) - would return 200.

Math.round(

*number*) - rounds a number to nearest integer.

Math.ceil(

*number*) - rounds the number up to nearest integer.

Math.floor(

*number*) - rounds the number down to nearest integer.

**Math.rand() returns a number between 0 and 1, but can we get a random number between 1 and 100? Or 5 and 200?**

No problem:

Math.floor(Math.random()*100)+1

^ That would return a number between 1 and 100. If we didn't add 1 at the end, it'd only return a number between 0 and 99.

**But that's a lot of text? Could we simplify somehow?**

Thankfully, there's a method in rpg_core.js that adds Math.randomInt(max);

So we can write the same using:

Math.randomInt(100)+1

**If you have any questions, feel free to ask or discuss various ways to make specific skills.**